GRAMMAR OF FRATER
From the book Frater: The Simplest International Language Ever Constructed by Phạm Xuân Thái.
|A||B||D||E||F||G||I||J||K||L||M||N||O||P||R||S||T|| U |
|a|| bǝ ||dǝ||ei||fǝ ||gǝ||i||zǝ||kǝ|| lǝ ||mǝ||nǝ||ou||pǝ||rǝ||sǝ ||tǝ|| u|
The stress is placed on the last syllabe of the word:
There is neither diphtong nor mute in Frater. Every letter is pronounced:
Frater roots never change. The noun, the adjective, the verb and the adverb have the same root:
frater - brother; fraternal; fraternize; fraternally
The roots of Frater belong mostly to Latin and Greek. They have been chosen in consideration of their greatest internationality.
In Frater, we can form all logical words:
temkia - when
tem + kia
time + what
samberkulina* - kitchen
samber + kulinia
room + cook
* Domkulina in the original. [T.N.]
There is no definite or indefinite article in Frater.
In Frater, it is always the word gine (woman) that forms the feminine of the noun. There is no gender concord.
frater - brother > fratergine - sister
There is no number concord in Frater:
mensa longa - a long table
tri mensa longa - three long tables
We use the word multi (many) to forestall doubt about whether the topic is singular or plural, when there is no qualifier such as several, many, all, three, etc.
ili obliga presen informamulti anu a Mitin Komon - it shall submit annual reports to the General Assembly
Compounds are formed by combining two or more roots, the main one being placed the first. The root used as a qualificative to the other is placed after the main one:
domposta - postoffice
In Frater, adjectives are invariant and placed after their nouns with the exception of the cardinal numbers:
frater - brother, fraternal
bi frater - two brothers
frater maga mi es a London - my elder brother is in London
They are formed by placing the personal pronouns after their nouns with the preposition ot (of) between the two. Yet the use of ot is optional.
Comparative of adjectives
When the compared object is not mentioned, the comparison is not expressed in Frater:
kia (es) maga?
which be big
which is bigger?
dis es maga
this be big
this is bigger
When the compared object is mentioned:
- The comparative of superiority "more than" is translated with plus; e.g. mensa dis es mikro - this table is small; mensa na es mikro plus - that table is smaller; mensa mi es mikro plus ot ni - my table is smaller than yours.
- The comparative of inferiority "less than" is translated with plusne; e.g. kas ni es serius plusne ot ili - your case is less serious than his.
- The comparative of equality "as... as" is translated with je; e.g. biblo ni es maga je ot mi - your book is as big as mine.
Remark: As for verbs and adverbs, the degrees of comparison are formed in the same way as with adjectives:
mi logo belo plus ni - I speak more rapidly than you
mi logo belo plusne ni - I speak less rapidly than you
mi logo belo je ni - I speak as rapidly as you
Simple superlative: tele - very.
ros es bel tele - the rose is very beautiful
- plasuni - the most; e.g. ros es bel plasuni inter flor - the rose is the most beautiful among flowers;
- plasunine - the least; e.g. ili es andro desirleban plasunine, mi kones na - he is the least ambitious man that I know.
In Frater, the first nine numbers are:
1 - uni
2 - bi
3 - tri
4 - kuar
5 - kuinti
6 - ses
7 - sep
8 - okta
9 - nona
0 - nul
Tens: They are formed by combining the first nine numbers with the word deka (ten):
10 - deka
20 - bideka
30 - trideka
40 - kuadrideka
50 - kuintideka
60 - sesdeka
70 - sepdeka
80 - oktadeka
90 - nonadeka
Hundreds, thousands, millions: They are formed by combining the first nine numbers with the words senti (100), mil (1000) and milion (1 000 000):
100 - senti
300 - trisenti
1000 - mil
5000 - kuintimil
1 000 000 - milion
6 000 000 - sesmilion
Reading of numbers: In Frater, numbers are read as they are written. We read each figure in indicating successively the number of hundreds, tens, and unities.
From 10 to 20:
11 - dekauni
12 - dekabi
13 - dekatri
14 - dekakuar
15 - dekakuinti
16 - dekases
17 - dekasep
18 - dekaokta
19 - dekanona
From 20 to 100:
21 - bidekauni
24 - bidekakuadri
52 - kuintidekabi
55 - kuintidekakuinti
86 - oktadekases
87 - oktadekasep
The number 365 is read: trisenti-sesdeka-kuinti.
The number 1957 is read: mil-nonasenti-kuintideka-sep.
As for telephone calling, we may read as follows: 21 346: bi-uni-tri-kuadri-ses.
The cardinal numbers once placed after their nouns become ordinal numbers:
mensa bi es na - the second table is there
They are formed by adding the word tem (time) to the cardinal numbers:
They are formed by adding the word unisur (one above) to the cardinal numbers:
unisurbi - a half
unisurtri - a third
unisurkuadri - a quarter
Remark: As the noun, the adjective, the verb and the adverb have the same root:
uni is also a unity
deka is also a ten
dekabi is also a dozen
senti is also a hundred
mil is also a thousand
milion is also a million
Words: To indicate time, we use the following words: sekun (second); minut (minute); ora (o'clock); unisurkuadri (a quarter); unisurbi (a half).
es kuadri (ora) - it is four o'clock a. m.
es deka ses (ora) - it is four o'clock p. m.
10.12 - es deka (ora) dekabi (minut)
2.30 - es bi (ora) unisurbi
4.45 - es kuadri (ora) kuadrideka kuinti
5.55 - es kuinti (ora) kuintideka kuinti
How to ask time
tem es kia? - what time is it?
A Paris, 11 Lunadekauni, 1917 - In Paris, 11 November 1917
Lito es morta dat 21 Lunasep, 1920 - Peter died on the 21st of July, 1920
|mi - I, me||mis - we, us|
| ni - you (sing.)|| nis - you (plur.)|
| ili - he, him, she, her, it|| ilis - they, them|
Reflexive pronouns: auto - oneself.
Lito eksbio auto - Peter kills himself
Possessive pronouns: They are formed by adding ot (of) to the personal pronouns.
| ot mi - mine || ot mis - ours |
| ot ni - yours (sing.) ||ot nis - yours (plur.)|
|ot ili - his, hers, its|| ot ilis - theirs |
The verb is absolutely invariant in person and in number.
- PAS (past) denotes the past tense;
- FUTUR (future) denotes the future tense;
- INTEM (in time) denotes the gerund;
- PROBABLE (probably) denotes the conditional tense.
The passive voice is formed by adding the auxiliary verb es (to be) to the infinitive.
Verb IDE (think)
|mi ide - I think ||mis ide - we think|
|ni ide - you think (sing.) ||nis ide - you think (plur.)|
|ili ide - he, she, it thinks||ilis ide - they think|
|mi ide pas - I thought||mis ide pas - we thought|
|ni ide pas - you thought (sing.)||nis ide pas - you thought (plur.)|
|ili ide pas - he, she, it thought||ilis ide pas - they thought|
|mi ide futur - I shall think||mis ide futur - we shall think|
|ni ide futur - you will think (sing.) ||nis ide futur - you will think (plur.)|
|ili ide futur - he, she, it will think||ilis ide futur - they will think|
|Stop! - Stop!|
|mi bibe probable - I would drink||mis bibe probable - I would drink|
|ni bibe probable - you would drink (sing.)||nis bibe probable - you would drink (plur.)|
|ili bibe probable - he, she, it would drink ||ilis bibe probable - they would drink|
|mi es trauma - I am wounded ||mis es trauma - we are wounded|
|ni es trauma - you are wounded (sing.)||nis es trauma - you are wounded (plur.)|
|ili es trauma - he, she, it is wounded||ilis es trauma - they are wounded|
Construction of Frater
In Frater, the grammatical order of the sentence is: subject-verb-object. There is no inverting in the word order of Frater.
mensa bi es na
table two be there
the second table is there
mi resta futur a Paris peri bi luna
I stay future in Paris about two month
I shall stay in Paris about two months
mi abe ne dola
I have no money
I have no money
ni abe futur ne dola